"In the nature of the use of chance operations is the belief that all answers answer all questions." -John Cage
Chance procedures use accident as the avenue of expression in art-making. In 1952, John Cage played 12 live radio broadcasts simultaneously, resulting in his piece "Imaginary Landscape No 4". Around the same time, Jackson Pollock tacked unstretched canvas to the floor and used sticks, towels and knives to create his well-known abstract paintings.
Working in collaboration is one step toward dismantling artistic autonomy and welcoming accident. Pictured below, students in Adria Pecora's art class use chance procedures to create visual art.